PAPER-II: AGRICULTURE (DEGREE LEVEL)
1. Historical developments in Agriculture; Agro-climatic zones of India and Telangana; Agricultural Meteorology – Weather and Climate, Rainfall patterns, Monsoons, artificial rain making , Weather forecasting – Crop Production and Productivity in India and Telangana, cultural practices; cropping systems & patterns; Yield and yield attributes of Cereals, Millets, Pulses, Oilseeds, Forage, Fibre, Sugar and commercial crops; Dryland Farming; Contingency crop planning; Cropping Systems and pattern in Telangana; Integrated Farming Systems; Farm implements.
2. Important Weed flora and their management in different fields and Horticultural crops; Forestry in India and Telangana; Silviculture, Agro-Forestry, Social Forestry, Afforestation, Energy Plantations, Deforestation, and its Implications; Soil Plant Water relations; Principles of irrigation – Irrigation methods and problems; Micro irrigation; Water Management in different crops, Watershed Management, Water use efficiency; water conservation; water harvesting; Sustainable Agriculture; Land degradation and conservation of natural resources; Wastelands and their development; Organic Farming; Bio-diversity. Geo-informatics and Nanotechnology for Precision Farming. Statistical methods. Agri-informatics.
3. Ultra Structure of Plant cells, organelles, and their functions – cell division; Fundamentals and principles of Genetics – Mendel Laws; Plant Breeding – scope and importance – Breeding methods for self-pollinated and cross-pollinated crops; Different types of selections and types of Hybridization – Heterosis – Inbreeding – varietal improvement; Major breeding procedures for the development of hybrids/ varieties of different crops. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act. Intellectual Property Rights. Plant Genetic Resources their utilization in crop improvement; Ideotype concept; Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress – Genetic basis of adaptability.
4. Tissue culture and Plant Genetic Engineering – Methods and Applications in crop improvement; Seed Production methods and processing; Seed Certification – Seed act – Seed drying – Seed Storage – Seed physiology. Growth and development of crop plants; Crop plant water relations, Neurophysiology; Photosynthesis, Respiration; Source and sink concept; Photoperiodism. Plant growth regulators: Post-harvest technology -types of ecosystems; Biotic and abiotic stresses; Climate change; Pollution, global warming, and controlled environment.
5. Types of Soils – Soil Taxonomy, Soil genesis, Physical, Chemical & Biological properties of SoilSoil fertility and productivity. Movement of nutrients in soil and plants. Essential elements (macro & micro) and their functions, deficiency symptoms, and toxic effects on plants and their corrective measures; Problem soils and their management. Quality of irrigation water. Methods of analysis of soils & fertilizers. Methods of fertilizer recommendations to crops. Fertilizer use efficiency; Types of Manures and Fertilizers. Soil quality and soil health. Fertilizer control order – Soil pollution. Integrated Nutrient management.
6. Different types of land surveys; Methods of soil and Water conservation; Plant Protection Equipment and farm machinery; Concepts of Green Houses; Renewable energy sources – Solar energy, wind energy, and Bio-energy – biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel.
7. Insect morphology; Taxonomy; Insect Ecology; Importance of Sericulture, Apiculture, and Lac culture; Integrated Pest Management – concept and Principles; Different groups of Plant Pathogens; Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Viroids, Phytoplasma, Spiroplasma, and Nematodes – their characteristics and classification; Classification of Plant Diseases – Diseases, disorders, Symptoms; Disease cycle – Survival of Pathogens, dispersal, and infection; Pests and diseases of important field and Horticultural crops and their management; Stored grain pests and management; Integrated plant and disease management, Concept and Principles; Plant Protection Chemicals – Insecticides and Fungicides – Classification. Non-Insect Pests and their management.
8. Concepts and principles of Agricultural Economics; Agricultural Finance; Agricultural credit – Banking institutions, Kisan credit cards; Microfinance and Self-help Groups; Crop insurance; Assessment of crop losses; Principles of Cooperation; Cooperative credit structure, Farm management, nature, and scope; Farm planning and budgeting –Types and systems of farming – Agricultural Production economics– Risk and uncertainty in agriculture; Agricultural marketing – structure and function; International trade- World Trade Organization; Trading by government agencies–Agricultural price policy; Risks in agricultural marketing; Agribusiness management; Capital management; Financial management of agribusiness; Agro-based industries.
9. Importance of Horticulture in Telangana; Fundamentals of Horticulture like importance in Human Nutrition, layout, training, pruning, propagation and growth regulators; Cultivation practices for fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, plantation, medicinal, aromatic and other Horticultural crops; Landscaping, Ornamental gardening, Protected cultivation, and Commercial Floriculture; Post Harvest technology and value addition of Fruits and Vegetable crops.
10. Extension Education- concepts, principles, and scope; Rural Development – concepts and importance; Community and Women Development Programs; New trends in Extension; Rural Sociology- concepts and importance in Agricultural extension; Social groups; the concept of Educational Psychology; Extension methodology – Transfer of Agricultural technology; Role of different agencies viz., KVK, DAATC, etc; Concepts of Entrepreneurship Development Program.
11. Cell structure and function of prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Major microbial groups, Role of microorganisms in the soil, food, and water; Structure and function of bio-molecules – amino acids, sugars, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, and enzymes; Major metabolic pathways; Bio-fertilizers, microbial bio-control agents, microbial bio-insecticides – their role in INDPM and sustainable agriculture; Renewable and non-renewable resources – Sustainable management of natural and bio-resources; Environmental Pollution and Prevention.