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Unit 1: Microbiology

  • Microbial cell structure and function

  • Microbial growth and nutrition

  • Microbial genetics and genetic regulation

  • Microbial metabolism and energy production

  • Microbial diversity and classification

  • Microbial pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions

  • Medical microbiology and infectious diseases

  • Industrial and environmental microbiology

  • Microbial biotechnology and applications

Unit 2: Physiology

  • Human and animal physiological systems

  • Neural and endocrine control mechanisms

  • Cardiovascular and respiratory physiology

  • Digestive and excretory systems

  • Reproductive physiology

  • Homeostasis and regulation

Unit 3: Molecular Biology

  • Structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)

  • DNA replication, repair, and recombination

  • Transcription and RNA processing

  • Translation and genetic code

  • Gene expression regulation

  • Recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing

  • Molecular markers and DNA fingerprinting

  • Genomics, proteomics, and functional genomics

Unit 4: Genetics

  • Mendelian genetics and inheritance patterns

  • Chromosomal basis of inheritance

  • Genetic variation and evolution

  • Molecular basis of genetics and gene expression

  • Genetic mapping and linkage analysis

  • Population genetics and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

  • Mutations and genetic disorders

  • Genetic counseling and medical genetics

Unit 5: Human Biology

  • Human anatomy and physiology of major organ systems

  • Human health and diseases

  • Human reproduction and developmental biology

  • Human growth and nutrition

  • Human genetics and genetic disorders

  • Human immunology and immune responses

  • Aging and age-related diseases

Unit 6: Biotechnology

  • Basics of biotechnology and its applications

  • Recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning

  • Genetic engineering and transgenic organisms

  • Bioprocess engineering and fermentation technology

  • Enzyme technology and industrial applications

  • Agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified crops

  • Bioremediation and environmental biotechnology

Unit 7: Biochemistry

  • Structure and function of biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates)

  • Enzyme kinetics and mechanisms

  • Metabolism and metabolic pathways

  • Biochemical signaling and cell communication

  • Biochemical techniques (electrophoresis, chromatography, spectroscopy)

  • Biochemical genetics and inborn errors of metabolism

Unit 8: Bioinformatics

  • Introduction to bioinformatics and computational biology

  • Sequence analysis and alignment algorithms

  • Structural bioinformatics and protein structure prediction

  • Genomic and proteomic databases

  • Phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution

  • Functional annotation of genes and proteins

  • Systems biology and network analysis

Unit 9: Biophysics

  • Physical principles in biological systems

  • Biophysical techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, X-ray crystallography)

  • Membrane biophysics and cell physiology

  • Protein structure and function

  • Molecular interactions and binding kinetics

  • Biophysical modeling and simulations

Unit 10: Immunology

  • Immune system components and functions

  • Innate and adaptive immunity

  • Antigen-antibody interactions

  • Immunological techniques (ELISA, Western blot, flow cytometry)

  • Autoimmunity and immunodeficiency

  • Immunotherapy and vaccine development

  • Transplantation immunology

Unit 11: Pharmacology

  • Principles of pharmacology and drug action

  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

  • Drug metabolism and elimination

  • Drug receptors and signaling pathways

  • Mechanisms of drug interactions and adverse effects

  • Rational drug design and drug discovery

  • Clinical trials and drug development

Unit 12: Nursing

  • Fundamentals of nursing practice

  • Health assessment and nursing diagnosis

  • Medical-surgical nursing

  • Pediatric nursing

  • Obstetric and gynecological nursing

  • Psychiatric nursing

  • Community health nursing

Unit 13: Zoology

  • Animal diversity and classification

  • Animal physiology and adaptations

  • Animal behavior and ethology

  • Animal ecology and conservation

  • Comparative anatomy and morphology

  • Animal evolution and evolutionary biology

  • Endocrinology and hormones in animals

Unit 14: Botany

  • Plant anatomy and morphology

  • Plant physiology and growth

  • Plant taxonomy and systematics

  • Plant ecology and adaptation

  • Plant genetics and breeding

  • Plant biotechnology and genetic engineering

  • Plant pathology and diseases

Unit 15: Environmental Sciences

  • Environmental pollution and its types

  • Ecosystem ecology and energy flow

  • Biodiversity conservation and habitat management

  • Environmental impact assessment

  • Climate change and global environmental issues

  • Waste management and pollution control

  • Environmental laws and policies

Unit 16: Veterinary Science

  • Animal anatomy and physiology

  • Veterinary microbiology and infectious diseases

  • Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics

  • Veterinary pathology and diagnostic techniques

  • Veterinary public health and epidemiology

  • Animal breeding and genetics

  • Livestock management and animal husbandry

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